1.215 – Source Notes



For more information on Feather Schwartz Foster, please visit her website at www.featherfoster.com check out her blog at featherfoster.wordpress.com, or reach out to her on Twitter @feathersfoster.

Sources used for this episode include:

  • Brady, Patricia. Martha Washington: An American Life. New York: Penguin Books, 2006 [2005].
  • Brighton, Ray. The Checkered Career of Tobias Lear. Portsmouth, NH: Portsmouth Marine Society, 1985.
  • Dunbar, Erica Armstrong. Never Caught: The Washingtons’ Relentless Pursuit of Their Runaway Slave, Ona Judge. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2017.
  • Holton, Woody. Abigail Adams. New York: Free Press, 2009.
  • Wiencek, Henry. An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003.

1.215 – Martha Washington



Year(s) Discussed: 1731-1802

In this special episode, we take a closer look at Martha Washington, the woman who would serve as the nation’s first First Lady before the term was even crafted for the role. To help us better understand her life and her role in American history, I am joined in this episode by Presidential and First Ladies historian Feather Schwartz Foster who shares her knowledge and insights about Martha’s strengths and shortcomings, the Washingtons’ marriage, how Martha approached her public and household duties after her husband took the oath of office in 1789, and what impact Martha had on crafting the role of the First Lady.

Audio editing by Andrew Pfannkuche, and special thanks to Toyin, Kato, Barbara, Mark, and Alex for providing the intro quotes.

This episode is dedicated to the memory of my mother, Betty Landry, and is being released on what would have been her 68th birthday.

The music between sections are selections from Mozart’s Clarinet Concerto 1st Movement (Allegro), performed by Markus Krumpöck and the Merkur Orchester Wiener Neustadt conducted by Willibald Zwittkovits.

Sources used in this episode as well as links to Feather’s website and social media can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.


1.21 – Source Notes



George Cabot by Samuel Griswold Goodrich [c. 1856], courtesy of Wikipedia
Audio editing by Andrew Pfannkuche

Special thanks to Ben Jacobs of the Wittenberg to Westphalia Podcast for providing the intro

  • Allen, W B; and Seth Ames, eds. Works of Fisher Ames: Volume II. Indianapolis, IN: LibertyClassics, 1983 [1854].
  • Barnhart, John D; and Dorothy L Riker. Indiana to 1816: The Colonial Period. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Historical Bureau & Indiana Historical Society, 1971.
  • Blair, Bryce. The Battle of Fallen Timbers and the Treaty of Fort Greeneville: why did Anthony Wayne win both and could he have lost?. Toledo, OH: University of Toledo, 2005. http://utdr.utoledo.edu/theses-dissertations/1409.
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Ernst, Robert. Rufus King: American Federalist. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
  • Gaff, Alan D. Bayonets in the Wilderness: Anthony Wayne’s Legion in the Old Northwest. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008 [2004].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, [14 April 1794],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-16-02-0208-0002. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 16, February 1794 – July 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 266–279.] [Last Accessed: 23 October 2017]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, [5 August] 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-17-02-0017. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 17, August 1794 – December 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 24–58.] [Last Accessed: 25 Oct 2017]
  • Hogeland, William. The Whiskey Rebellion: George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and the Frontier Rebels Who Challenged America’s Newfound Sovereignty. New York: Scribner, 2006.
  • Knox, Henry. “To George Washington, 15 April 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-15-02-0465. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 15, 1 January–30 April 1794, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2009, pp. 597–601.] [Last Accessed: 16 Oct 2017]
  • Kohn, Richard H. Eagle and Sword: The Beginnings of the Military Establishment in America. New York: The Free Press, 1975.
  • Lancaster, Bruce. From Lexington to Liberty: The Story of the American Revolution. Lewis Gannett, ed. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1955.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Puls, Mark. Henry Knox: Visionary General of the American Revolution. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
  • Randolph, Edmund. “To George Washington, 5 August 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-16-02-0362. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 16, 1 May–30 September 1794, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011, pp. 523–530.] [Last Accessed: 25 Oct 2017]
  • Stahr, Walter. John Jay: Founding Father. New York: Hambledon & Continuum, 2006 [2005].
  • Washington, George. “By the President of the United State of America. A Proclamation.” Yale Law School, The Avalon Project. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/gwproc09.asp. [Last Accessed: 23 Oct 2017]
  • Washington, George. “Proclamation, 7 August 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-16-02-0365. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 16, 1 May–30 September 1794, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011, pp. 531–537.] [Last Accessed: 25 Oct 2017]

1.21 – The Bigger They Are



Hugh Henry Brackenridge by Clayton Braun, courtesy of Wikipedia

Year(s) Discussed: 1792-1794

The Washington administration is beset by various problems in the west while the British threaten American shipping interests in the West Indies, leading the two nations on the path to war. Though growing ever more tired of his position, President Washington must devise a plan to thwart attempts at rebellion in the west, decide upon an envoy to send east to London to seek out a diplomatic resolution, and begin work to build the US Navy. No rest for a weary President in 1794! Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.


1.045 – A Proclamation of Thanksgiving



Year(s) Discussed: 1619, 1621, 1789

To mark the upcoming US holiday of Thanksgiving, I wanted to release this special episode to provide a few thoughts on the holiday and its history and legacy as well as share with you President Washington’s proclamation issued on October 3rd, 1789 calling for the first day of national Thanksgiving under the constitutional government. The text can be found in the cited link below.

Music: Gustav Holst’s Movement II of “The Planets,” Venus, the Bringer of Peace


1.205 – Randolph



Edmund Randolph, courtesy of Wikipedia

Year(s) Discussed: 1753-1789

Though well known in his own day, Thomas Jefferson’s successor at the State Department is little known to modern audiences. Thus, I present this special episode in order to help you understand our second Secretary of State. His name has been brought up in the podcast previously as he was the first Attorney General, but there are a few key points that you’ll want to pay attention to about this Virginian’s story as they might just come to play in the not too distant future.

Audio editing for this episode by Andrew Pfannkuche.

The source used for this episode was, to date, the only biography of Randolph that I’ve been able to find:

  • Reardon, John J. Edmund Randolph: A Biography. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co, 1974.

1.20 – Source Notes



General Anthony Wayne with the Legion of the United States by H Charles McBarron Jr, courtesy of the US Army Center of Military History and Wikipedia

Audio editing for this episode by Andrew Pfannkuche

  • Adams, John. “To Benjamin Rush, 25 January 1806,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-5119. [This is an Early Access document from The Adams Papers. It is not an authoritative final version.] [Last Accessed: 23 Sep 2017]
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Dungan, Nicholas. Gallatin: America’s Swiss Founding Father. New York & London: New York University Press, 2010.
  • Gaff, Alan D. Bayonets in the Wilderness: Anthony Wayne’s Legion in the Old Northwest. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008 [2004].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Frederick A. C. Muhlenberg, [16 December 1793],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-15-02-0387-0002. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 15, June 1793 – January 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1969, pp. 465–467.] [Last Accessed: 23 Sep 2017]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 8 April 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-16-02-0195. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 16, February 1794 – July 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 250–253.] [Last Accessed: 24 Sep 2017]
  • Hogeland, William. The Whiskey Rebellion: George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and the Frontier Rebels Who Challenged America’s Newfound Sovereignty. New York: Scribner, 2006.
  • Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1994 [1971].
  • Kohn, Richard H. Eagle and Sword: The Beginnings of the Military Establishment in America. New York: The Free Press, 1975.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017. http://presidencies.blubrry.com
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To Alexander Hamilton, 6 April 1790,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-06-02-0228. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 6, December 1789 – August 1790, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1962, pp. 355–356.] [Last Accessed: 22 Sep 2017]
  • Reardon, John J. Edmund Randolph: A Biography. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co, 1974.
  • US Congress. “An Act for apportioning Representatives among the several States, according to the first enumeration.” 14 Apr 1792. https://www.census.gov/history/pdf/1790_Apportionment.pdf [Last Accessed: 23 Sep 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Gentlemen of the House of Representatives, 5 Apr 1792.” Annals of Congress, House of Represenatives, 2nd Congress, 1st Session. p. 539. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llac&fileName=003/llac003.db&recNum=267 [Last Accessed: 23 Sep 2017]
  • Washington, George. “Proclamation 3B—Cessation of Violence and Obstruction of Justice in Protest of Liquor Laws,” September 15, 1792. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=65427. [Last Accessed: 21 Sep 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, [8 April 1794],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-16-02-0194. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 16, February 1794 – July 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 249–250.] [Last Accessed: 24 Sep 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 29 May 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-16-02-0128. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 16, 1 May–30 September 1794, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011, p. 154.] [Last Accessed: 24 Sep 2017]
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.

1.20 – Go West, Young Men



William Bradford by William E Winner [c. 1872], courtesy of the US Department of Justice
Year(s) Discussed: 1792-1794

Washington and his administration adjusts to the shake-up following Jefferson’s departure from the Cabinet. Meanwhile, attention is turned west due to General Wayne making steps to take his Legion of the United States into action as an attempt at negotiation with native forces fails in part because of British interference. The federal government must also decide how to approach an increased uproar coming from western Pennsylvania over the whiskey excise tax. Though Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton has to devote a good portion of his time in the first part of 1794 to defending his record, this doesn’t stop him from meddling in affairs with other parts of the government. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.


A Night in a Representative Slave Dwelling



I received an email on Tuesday, September 26th that I had been chosen as one of the eight people to participate in an overnight experience at a representative slave cabin as part of a weekend-long event beginning with a dinner at the Harvey B Gantt Center for African-American Arts & Culture (Charlotte history FYI: Harvey B Gantt was the first African-American mayor of Charlotte).

Gantt Center [Picture by Mark Clifton, 24 Oct 2009], courtesy of Wikipedia
The eight chosen had purchased tickets to attend a dinner at the Gantt Center to hear remarks by Joseph McGill about the Slave Dwelling Project. The Project’s aim is “to identify and assist property owners, government agencies and organizations to preserve extant slave dwellings” with the ultimate goal being 1) preservation of the historic dwellings still in existence and 2) using these dwellings to facilitate education for the modern-day audience about the lives of their inhabitants and of the slave experience in general.

We were told to bring sleeping bags (and a pad), a pillow, water, toiletries, a long sleeve, and an “open mind to conversations.” I didn’t know what to expect, but I was eager to take in any insight that I could from the experience.

It required a bit of planning as we are a one-car household and I rely on public transportation, but the logistics were worked out so that I was able to begin the experience at the President James K Polk State Historic Site at 4:30 on Friday, September 29th. For those who don’t know, Polk, who was the 11th President of the United States, is one of three* (*Andrew Jackson is counted by both NC and SC) presidents born in North Carolina with all three making their way over to Tennessee to settle at some point in their lives. All three came from rather humble beginnings compared to other presidents of the time, though Polk’s family seems to have been the most well-established upon his birth.

We would soon learn that the two cabins present on the site were not original to the site (though they were original to the county; at the time, cabins were torn down when folks decided to move and the materials taken to the next site or used by others in the area to construct new buildings and/or repair existing buildings – waste not, want not!) and the site itself was likely not the location of the original Polk homestead (before they sold it and moved to Tennessee, the Polks had over 450 acres, and the state historic site only has 21). However, the building we would be staying in (the 12 ft by 12 ft kitchen cabin, to the right in the picture above) was the approximate size of a slave dwelling in the area and would be our lodging for the evening.

We then ventured to the Gantt Center in Uptown for the dinner where we were able to hear Joe McGill talk about his project and where it’s taken him thus far.

There were some surprising locations of slave dwellings that Mr. McGill and the Project have been able to identify. (Side note: The Slave Dwelling Project was originally called the “Slave Cabin Project,” but Joe quickly learned about slave dwellings in urban areas that were a part of the same house that the slave owners inhabited and thus, he changed the name to include any dwelling in which a slave inhabited.) Naturally, there were many southern sites, but there were also sites up the north eastern seaboard. However, the most surprising to everyone was Wisconsin where there are not one but two identified slave dwellings.

When the dinner was over, the overnight guests were transported back to the Polk Historic Site where we got our provisions for the evening together, got into more comfortable clothes, and settled in around the campfire once it was going to talk.

Putting on my data analyst hat for a moment, the age of the folks around the fire ranged from 13 to 81. The group was predominantly African-American with what seemed by gender expression to be a balance of female to male in the group (though, as preferred pronouns were not asked, I cannot be certain as to the gender identity of the group’s members). The discussion began with Joe asking each of us to talk about why we had agreed to come on the overnight experience. After that, the conversation moved organically. There was very little prompting needed as we all came with that open mind to conversation as we had been asked to bring. We talked about the experiences (what little we know) of the enslaved people who lived on the site: Violet and Luce as well as two male slaves whose names have been lost to history. In addition to those four, a graduate student recently discovered that a fifth slave who had been previously known to Polk scholars was in fact born on the site. The fifth enslaved person, Elias Polk, was James K Polk’s “man-servant” who was, years after the move to Tennessee, brought, along with his wife, by the Polks to serve them at the White House after James was elected president.

One of the participants asked about those numbers considering the hundreds of acres that the Polks had prior to moving to Tennessee as it didn’t seem realistic that only four adult enslaved people could work hundreds of acres. A couple of theories were floated about. The Polks could have leased some of the land to other white farmers who, depending on the size of their farm, may or may not have had enslaved people of their own working the land. Also, the historic interpreter for the site shared with me later that it is believed that the Polks had more enslaved people than the five we know of, but because records could have been lost over time or the record keeping just wasn’t that good to begin with, they’ve only been able to prove the existence of these five thus far.

We talked a good deal about how difficult it is to piece together the stories of enslaved peoples and, in particular, to get to their stories rather than have their lives filtered through the prejudicial bias of the slave owners. As most enslaved peoples could not read or write (and indeed, were often intentionally kept illiterate by the owners and overseers), while we do have some primary accounts from people like Harriet Jacobs, Solomon Northup, Elizabeth Keckley, and Frederick Douglass to name a few, they represent the stories of people who were able to gain their freedom while the voices of so many more, the lives of people who remained enslaved their entire lives or died while attempting to escape, are lost to us. However, there are a growing number of modern day historians who are examining extant primary documents, historic artifacts, and the archaeological record at historic sites to pull out any details that we can about the lives of the enslaved people who were passed over in the history books for so long and relegated to the background in the narrative of history.

On a more personal level, several African-American participants talked about their efforts to trace back their ancestry and, when they got to their enslaved ancestors, they would ultimately hit a wall and could go no further. They might be able to find a name on a ledger, but unless the slave owner was more detailed in recording lineage, they could not tell who this ancestor’s parents were. In many cases, the only thing they knew about this ancestor, the only record of their ever existing at all, was a name that a slave owner wrote in a ledger. A few scripted letters encapsulated a person’s entire life.

The discussion also turned to how this legacy, this past, is still affecting the present day. The Civil War, Reconstruction, Jim Crow, the Civil Rights Movement, the Confederate statues, Charlottesville. While there was some acknowledged progress, there was also a shared feeling of frustration. As the night went on, we talked about what could or should be done. As we bundled off to our sleeping bags, we agreed that a greater understanding of the past – the entire past, not just from the perspective of the privileged – was key as was continued conversation. There also seemed to be a shared understanding that we were all in this together and that this was a challenge in our society in which we will either all overcome for success or all fail from not being able to meet it.

In the morning, we were asked to share our thoughts through numerous methods – I did write some thoughts as well as answered questions from a local reporter which became part of a story that appeared on the front page the next morning (there is a video as well if you’re interested in hearing the perspectives of a few of the other participants). Since then, I’ve also had a number of friends and associates ask me about my perspective and what I learned. I have also faced criticism about it not being ‘authentic enough’ of an experience and for it being a ‘pseudo-event’. All of this has floated around in my mind the last couple of weeks as I attempted to work on this post while at the same time going back to my day-to-day life. I have reflected on that night while encountering hundreds of people over the last couple of weeks in meetings, presentations, church, the grocery store, on the street, on the bus, in the halls, and at home.

For me, it was a reminder of why I do what I do. A few days back, as part of a leadership seminar I’m participating in, I was asked to do a five minute presentation on who I am. I talked a good deal about my love of history and how, at the heart of it, for me, history is all about trying to understand people – both the people of the past as well as those of the present – and how all of our stories come together. While it is so easy for students of history to get focused in on the ‘big names’ – those figures of history for whom there is a wealth of material to study – when I decided to start podcasting, I deliberately started thinking of ways to bring in perspectives and stories that are not as well known and to highlight their role in history as the ‘big names’ couldn’t have been ‘big names’ without many other people.

The experience also made me thankful to have had so many insightful conversations over the years with people from diverse backgrounds. I think about the many people that are in my life, and I appreciate just how much I learn from those many folks who have shared their stories and their time with me over the years, be it only a few minutes or if I can count the decades we’ve been in one another’s company. Even when we disagree, I still gain valuable knowledge. I think of all that I have learned and try to incorporate that into my response when I am asked my opinion on a current topic of public discussion or when I am involved in projects focused on inclusion and understanding or when I’m at the ballot box. I think of all of the people I’ve known from many walks of life and of many more that I have not yet met, and I try day by day to work towards a better world for all. I may not always succeed and I may sometimes make mistakes. However, I try, and this experience reaffirmed my commitment to keep on trying each and every day.

The only response I have to the criticism I’ve faced is that it is impossible for any of us to fully comprehend any past experience, especially in cases where the perspectives, the voices, of many individuals are lost to us. The history is just that – history. It’s a time that has passed and, even for those events in which we lived, our perceptions of those events are shaped by what we know came after. Events before our lifetimes will forever remain a mystery in some respects. All that we can do in order to try to understand and learn from the events of the past is to read about them in primary and secondary sources, visit historic sites, watch documentaries and extant film footage when possible, participate in or witness reenactments, and use our imaginations to try to fill in any remaining blanks. Our knowledge of history will never be complete, but people like Mr. McGill are trying to bridge that gap because, as much as history is history, it is also present, and in order to understand ourselves, we must try to understand the history that made us who we are today. I commend the efforts of all of those who attempt to do so and would invite the critics to refocus on what’s important: the people.

I know that I will never forget that night, sleeping on the wooden floor, surrounded by darkness, and trying to imagine of what the individuals who lived in those spaces would have dreamt. Would sleep have been a relief to them, a few hours of freedom, or would it have been just more time that they felt wasn’t their own? I have no way of ever knowing for certain, but I want to try to understand them and their lives as much as I can as their stories are just as important as those of the people who would have been sleeping in the other cabin and maybe, in understanding the people of the past a little better, we can better understand ourselves and those around us in the present day.

For more information, may I recommend the following resources:

Thanks so much to Joe McGill and the folks from the Slave Dwelling Project as well as Scott Warren, Kate Moore, and all the folks at the Polk Historic Site; Bonita Buford and all of the folks at the Gantt Center; and all of the overnight experience participants! It was a pleasure to meet you all and be able to share an evening in your company!

All photos not otherwise cited are my own.


1.19 – Source Notes



Execution of Marie Antionette, courtesy of Wikipedia

Audio editing for this episode by Andrew Pfannkuche

• Bernhard, Winfred E A. Fisher Ames: Federalist and Statesman 1758-1808. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1965.
• Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
• Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
• Dungan, Nicholas. Gallatin: America’s Swiss Founding Father. New York & London: New York University Press, 2010.
• Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington: Anguish and Farewell (1793-1799). Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Co, 1972 [1969].
• Hamilton, Alexander. “To John Jay, 3 September 1792,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-12-02-0242. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 12, July 1792 – October 1792, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1967, pp. 316–317.] [Last Accessed: 21 Sep 2017]
• Hogeland, William. The Whiskey Rebellion: George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and the Frontier Rebels Who Challenged America’s Newfound Sovereignty. New York: Scribner, 2006.
• Jefferson, Thomas. “To Eli Whitney, 16 November 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-27-02-0359. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 27, 1 September–31 December 1793, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997, pp. 392–393.] [Last Accessed: 19 Sep 2017]
• Jefferson, Thomas. “To Angelica Schuyler Church, 27 November 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-27-02-0416. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 27, 1 September–31 December 1793, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997, pp. 449–450.] [Last Accessed: 21 Sep 2017]
• Jefferson, Thomas. “To Enoch Edwards, 30 December 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-27-02-0569. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 27, 1 September–31 December 1793, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997, p. 637.] [Last Accessed: 20 Sep 2017]
• Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
• McDonald, Forrest. The Presidency of George Washington. Lawrence, KS; Manhattan, KS; and Wichita, KS: The University Press of Kansas, 1974 [1974].
• Washington, George. “To Arthur Young, 12 December 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-14-02-0337. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 14, 1 September–31 December 1793, ed. David R. Hoth. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2008, pp. 504–514.] [Last Accessed: 14 Sep 2017]
• Washington, George. “To Thomas Jefferson, 1 January 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-15-02-0001. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 15, 1 January–30 April 1794, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2009, p. 1.] [Last Accessed: 21 Sep 2017]
• Washington, George. “To Tobias Lear, 6 May 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-16-02-0023. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 16, 1 May–30 September 1794, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011, pp. 22–28.] [Last Accessed: 14 Sep 2017]

More information on the French Revolution can be found on Mike Duncan’s Revolutions podcast.