2.06 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Sarah Tanksalvala from the American History Podcast for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Adams, Abigail. “To Mary Smith Cranch, 16 May 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-12-02-0075. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 12, March 1797 – April 1798, ed. Sara Martin, C. James Taylor, Neal E. Millikan, Amanda A. Mathews, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, Gregg L. Lint, and Sara Georgini. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015, pp. 116–118.] [Last Accessed: 1 Sep 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Elbridge Gerry, 3 May 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-1957. [Last Accessed: 8 Sep 2018]
  • Adams, John. “First Annual Address to Congress,” November 22, 1797. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=29439. [Last Accessed: 15 Sep 2018]
  • Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1999 [1971].
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Chew, Richard S. “Certain Victims of an International Contagion: The Panic of 1797 and the Hard Times of the Late 1790s in Baltimore.” Journal of the Early Republic. 25:4 [Winter 2005] 565-613.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Craughwell, Thomas J. Failures of the Presidents: From the Whiskey Rebellion and the War of 1812 to the Bay of Pigs and War in Iraq. Beverly, MA: Quayside Publishing Group, 2008.
  • Curott, Nicholas A; and Tyler A Watts. “What Caused the Recession of 1797?” Studies in Applied Economics. 48 [February 2016] i-31.
  • “Dana, Francis.” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=D000021 [Last Accessed: 6 Sep 2018]
  • Durham, Walter T. Before Tennessee: The Southwest Territory 1790-1796. Piney Flats, TN: Rocky Mount Historical Association, 1990.
  • Ellis, Joseph J. Passionate Sage: The Character and Legacy of John Adams. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2001 [1993].
  • Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010 [1992].
  • Golinski, Jan. “Debating the Atmospheric Constitution: Yellow Fever and the American Climate.” Eighteenth-Century Studies. 49:2 [2016] 149-165.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Nagel, Paul C. John Quincy Adams: A Public Life, a Private Life. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1997.
  • Nettels, Curtis P. The Emergence of a National Economy: The Economic History of the United States, Volume II. White Plains, NY: M E Sharpe Inc, 1962.
  • Paul, Joel Richard. Without Precedent: Chief Justice John Marshall and His Times. New York: Riverhead Books, 2018.
  • Perkins, Bradford. The First Rapprochement: England and the United States, 1795-1805. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955.
  • Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire, 1767-1821.New York: Harper & Row, 1977.
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1996.
  • Toll, Ian W. Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the U.S. Navy. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2006.
  • Walsh, Kenneth T. From Mount Vernon to Crawford: A History of the Presidents and Their Retreats. New York: Hyperion, 2005.
  • Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams. New York & London: Simon & Schuster, 2002 [1981].

Featured Image: “William Blount” by Washington Bogart Cooper [c. 1828-1884], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.06 – Scandals and Observations



Year(s) Discussed: 1792-1797

Adams is joined in Philadelphia by his wife Abigail as he tries to balance war and peace with the first of the original six frigates of the US Navy being launched around the time that he appoints peace commissioners to France. Meanwhile, the US Senate is rocked by a scandal involving one of its leaders while news of Hamilton’s extramarital affair becomes public. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Alexander Hamilton” [possibly by John Trumbull, c. 1790], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.05 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Mark Painter of The History of the Twentieth Century for providing this episode’s intro quote!

  • Adams, John. “To Timothy Pickering, Jr., et al., March 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-1920. [Last Accessed: 24 Aug 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 17 March 1797.” Adams Family Papers: An Electronic Archive. Massachusetts Historical Society. http://www.masshist.org/digitaladams/archive/doc?id=L17970317ja [Last Accessed: 19 Aug 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Timothy Pickering, Jr. and Charles Lee, 20 March 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-1899. [Last Accessed: 24 Aug 2018]
  • Adams, John. “Address to a Joint Session of Congress on Relations with France,” May 16, 1797. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=65636. [Last Accessed: 29 Aug 2018]
  • Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1999 [1971].
  • Bemis, Samuel Flagg. Jay’s Treaty: A Study in Commerce and Diplomacy. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 1962 [1923].
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Timothy Pickering, [22 March 1797],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0351. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 545–547.] [Last Accessed: 24 Aug 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Oliver Wolcott, Junior, [30 March 1797],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0358. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 567–568.] [Last Accessed: 24 Aug 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To James McHenry, [March 1797],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0360. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 574–575.] [Last Accessed: 24 Aug 2018]
  • Hill, Peter P. William Vans Murray, Federalist Diplomat: The Shaping of Peace with France 1797-1801. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1971.
  • King, Charles R, ed. The Life and Correspondence of Rufus King, Volume II. 1795-1799. New York: G P Putnam’s Sons, 1895.
  • Kurtz, Stephen G. The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism 1795-1800. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1957.
  • Perkins, Bradford. The First Rapprochement: England and the United States, 1795-1805. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955.
  • Smith, Page. John Adams, Volume II 1784-1826. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1962.
  • Zahniser, Marvin R. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney: Founding Father. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1967.

Featured Image: “Paul Barras,” courtesy of Wikipedia


2.05 – Et Tu, France?



Year(s) Discussed: 1796-1797

News arrives in Philadelphia of the French government refusing to accept Charles Cotesworth Pinckney as the US Minister to France, and various individuals both inside and outside the Adams administration spring into action to try to gain control of US foreign policy. Meanwhile, Adams works to cultivate sources independent of the State Department to keep him informed of affairs in Europe, and forces conspire to launch an attack on one of the leading figures of the American political landscape. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Portrait of William Vans Murray,” Mather Brown [c. 1787], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.04 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Ben Jacobs of the Wittenberg to Westphalia podcast for providing this episode’s intro quote!

  • Abernethy, Thomas P. The South in the New Nation 1789-1819: A History of the South, Volume IV. Wendell Holmes Stephenson and E Merton Coulter, eds. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1961.
  • Bernard, J F. Talleyrand: A Biography. New York: G P Putnam’s Sons, 1973.
  • Blackburn, Robin. “Haiti, Slavery, and the Age of the Democratic Revolution.” William and Mary Quarterly. 3rd Series, 63:4 (October 2006) 643-674.
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Chew, Richard S. “Certain Victims of an International Contagion: The Panic of 1797 and the Hard Times of the Late 1790s in Baltimore.” Journal of the Early Republic. 25:4 [Winter 2005] 565-613.
  • Cleves, Rachel Hope. “’Jacobins in this Country’: The United States, Great Britain, and Trans-Atlantic Anti-Jacobinism.” Early American Studies. 8:2 (Spring 2010) 410-445.
  • Dodd, Anna Bowman. Talleyrand: The Training of a Statesman, 1754-1838. New York and London: G P Putnam’s Sons, 1927.
  • Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
  • Dubois, Laurent. A Colony of Citizens: Revolution & Slave Emancipation in the French Caribbean, 1787-1804. Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
  • Ehrman, John. The Younger Pitt Volume I: The Years of Acclaim. London: Constable & Co, 1969.
  • Ehrman, John. The Younger Pitt Volume III: The Consuming Struggle. London: Constable & Co, 1996.
  • King, Rufus. “To George Washington, 6 February 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00257. [Last Accessed: 31 Jul 2018]
  • Linklater, Andro. An Artist in Treason: The Extraordinary Double Life of General James Wilkinson. New York: Walker Publishing Co, 2009.
  • Nagel, Paul C. John Quincy Adams: A Public Life, a Private Life. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1997.
  • Perkins, Bradford. The First Rapprochement: England and the United States, 1795-1805. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955.
  • Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: HarperCollins, 1998 [1997].
  • Tyson, George F, Jr., ed. Toussaint L’Ouverture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973.

White, Ashli. Encountering Revolution: Haiti and the Making of the Early Republic. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012.

 

Featured Image: “William Pitt the Younger,” Gainsborough Dupont [c. 1787], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.04 – Hither and Yon: The News From Abroad



Year(s) Discussed: 1783-1797

In this episode, we get caught up on the international situation around the time of Adams’s inauguration and the various issues that conditions beyond its borders bring up for the United States. Britain is faced with attacks from both at home and abroad. The French Directory stumbles along as two leaders arise. Toussaint L’Ouverture contemplates the future of Saint-Domingue. Various European powers conspire to threaten American sovereignty west of the Appalachians. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Bataille gagnée par le Général Bonaparte le 14 Janvier 1797”, Henri Félix Emmanuel Philippoteaux [c. 1844], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.03 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Dan McClellan for providing the English version of the intro quote for this episode!

  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 1 January 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0247. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 480–481.] [Last Accessed: 16 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 9 February 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0290. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 553–554.] [Last Accessed: 20 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Elbridge Gerry, 13 February 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-1855. [Last Accessed: 20 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 3 March 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-12-02-0003. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 12, March 1797 – April 1798, ed. Sara Martin, C. James Taylor, Neal E. Millikan, Amanda A. Mathews, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, Gregg L. Lint, and Sara Georgini. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015, pp. 7–8.] [Last Accessed: 20 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “Inaugural Address,” March 4, 1797. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=25802. [Last Accessed: 24 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 22 March 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-12-02-0025. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 12, March 1797 – April 1798, ed. Sara Martin, C. James Taylor, Neal E. Millikan, Amanda A. Mathews, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, Gregg L. Lint, and Sara Georgini. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015, pp. 44–45.] [Last Accessed: 30 Jul 2018]
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010 [1992].
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Madison, 17 December 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-16-02-0296. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 16, 27 April 1795 – 27 March 1797, ed. J. C. A. Stagg, Thomas A. Mason, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1989, pp. 431–432.] [Last Accessed: 16 Jul 2018]
  • Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1994 [1971].
  • Landry, Jerry. “Reminiscences of the Visit to Philadelphia, July 2017.”
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. The First Presidential Contest: 1796 and the Founding of American Democracy. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2013.
  • Rappleye, Charles. Robert Morris: Financier of the American Revolution. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010.
  • Robbins, Karen E. James McHenry: Forgotten Federalist. Athens, GA and London: University of Georgia Press, 2013.
  • Smith, Page. John Adams, Volume II 1784-1826. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1962.
  • Turner, Frederick J, ed. “Correspondence of the French Minister to the United States, 1791-1797.” Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1903: Volume II. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1904.
  • Washington, George. “To John Adams, 20 February 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00316. [Last Accessed: 30 Jul 2018]
  • Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams. New York & London: Simon & Schuster, 2002 [1981].
  • Wolcott, Oliver, Jr. “To Alexander Hamilton, 31 March 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0359. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 569–574.] [Last Accessed: 24 Jul 2018]

Featured Image: The President’s House in Philadelphia circa 2017, courtesy of me


2.03 – The New Sheriff in Town



Year(s) Discussed: 1796-1797

The election of 1796 results in John Adams becoming the nation’s second chief executive, but he quickly finds more questions than answers awaiting him on the path to taking the oath of office. Adams is immediately faced with the need to make decisions about who to keep from the previous administration, what if any policy changes to make, and even where he and his family will live. It’s a transition unlike any other in American history to that point, and with various pressing issues waiting on the desk, the honeymoon for the new President promised to be short-lived. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Congress Hall,” unknown artist, courtesy of the US Senate Historical Office


1.36 – Source Notes



  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 25 March 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0119. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 228–230.] [Last Accessed: 17 Apr 2018]
  • Bartoloni-Tuazon, Kathleen. For Fear of an Elective King: George Washington and the Presidential Title Controversy of 1789. Ithaca, NY and London: Cornell University Press, 2014.
  • Calloway, Colin G. The Indian World of George Washington: The First President, the First Americans, and the Birth of the Nation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Lossing, Benson, J, ed. The Diary of George Washington, From 1789 to 1791. New York: Charles B Richardson & Co, 1860.
  • Morgan, Lewis H. League of the Ho-De’-No-Sau-Nee or Iroquois. Herbert M Lloyd, ed. New York: Dodd, Mead and Co, 1922 [1851].
  • Washington, George. “To Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., 21 July 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-04-02-0165. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 4, 20 April 1799 – 13 December 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 201–204.] [Last Accessed: 4 Aug 2018]
  • Wiencek, Henry. An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003.

Podcasts mentioned in the episode:

Featured Image: Statue of George Washington in front of Federal Hall, New York City, NY courtesy of me


1.36 – Washington Q&A



I asked for your questions, and you sent in some great ones! As a part of the transition into a new presidency, we send George Washington off by addressing some lingering issues about his life and tenure including whether he thought of the Federalists as a political party, whether Hamilton would have become president if not for his affair with Maria Reynolds, did Washington really want to be called “His Excellency,” and what was up with the president tallying how many women he saw during his Southern tour. The answers to these questions and more can be found in this special episode of Presidencies! Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: Statue of George Washington at the Smithsonian National Museum of American History, courtesy of Matthew G Bisanz and Wikipedia